In 1819, Kalanimōkū was the first Hawaiian Chief to be formally baptized a Catholic, aboard the French ship Uranie.
“The captain and the clergyman asked Young what Ka-lani-moku’s rank was, and upon being told that he was the chief counselor (kuhina nui) and a wise, kind, and careful man, they baptized him into the Catholic Church” (Kamakau). Shortly thereafter, Boki, Kalanimoku’s brother (and Governor of Oʻahu) was baptized.
It wasn’t until July 7, 1827, however, that the pioneer French Catholic mission arrived in Honolulu. It consisted of three priests of the Order of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary; Father Alexis Bachelot, Abraham Armand and Patrick Short. They were supported by a half dozen other Frenchmen.
The Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary and of the Perpetual Adoration of the Most Holy Sacrament of the Altar is a Roman Catholic religious institute of brothers, priests and nuns. (The letters following their names, SS.CC., are the Latin initials for Sacrorum Cordium, “of the Sacred Hearts”.)
Their first mass was celebrated a week later on Bastille Day, July 14, and a baptism was given on November 30, to a child of Don Francisco de Paula Marin.
The American Congregationalists encouraged a policy preventing the establishment of a Catholic presence in Hawaiʻi. Catholic priests were forcibly expelled from the Islands in 1831.
In 1837, two other Catholic priests arrived. However the Hawaiian government forced them back onto a ship. American, British and French officials in Hawaii intervened and persuaded the king to allow the priests to return to shore.
One of the priests expelled in 1837 was Rev. Louis Désiré Maigret. Born September 14, 1804 in Maille, France, at the age of 24, Maigret was ordained to the priesthood as a member of the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary on September 23, 1828.
“Governor Kekūanāoʻa, in charge of harbor traffic and of immigration, questions the new arrivals. The English consul vouches for Columban Murphy, and he is allowed to land. Maigret, however, must stay on board and is to sail away at the first opportunity. And, together with Maigret, Kekūanāoʻa plans to get rid of another undesirable, the patient Father Bachelot, who, as it happens, is not only a priest but a very sick man.” (Charlot)
On June 17, 1839, King Kamehameha III issued the Edict of Toleration permitting religious freedom for Catholics.
Maigret sailed to Pohnpei in Micronesia to set up a mission there; he was the first missionary they had seen. He later departed for Valparaiso (Chile.)
However, when the Vicar Apostolic of Oriental Oceania was lost at sea, Father Maigret was appointed the first Vicar Apostolic of the Sandwich Islands (now the Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu.) They sought to expand the Catholic presence.
At the end of the year 1840, Maigret jots down this balance sheet: Vicariate of Oceania: Catholics: 3,000; Heretics: 30,000 and Unbelievers: 100,000. (Charlot)
Maigret oversaw the construction of what would become his most lasting legacy, the Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace, still standing and in use in downtown Honolulu.
Maigret was officially ordained as a Bishop on November 28, 1847.
Maigret divided Oʻahu into missionary districts. Shortly after, the Windward coast of Oʻahu was dotted with chapels. The Sacred Hearts Father’s College of Ahuimanu was founded by the Catholic mission on the Windward side of Oʻahu in 1846.
“Outside the city, at Ahuimanu, Maigret has now a country retreat that he refers to by the Hawaiian word māla. It is a combination garden, orchard and kitchen garden. Nuhou describes it, “The venerable bishop has built his own vineyard and planted his own orchard … His retreat in the mountain, his “garden in the air” as he terms it, is a pleasant and profitable sight … with a small stone-walled cottage about fifteen feet by ten.” When the pressure of events allows it, Maigret takes refuge there.” (Charlot)
Although the College of Ahuimanu flourished, as apparently reported by the Bishop in 1865, “The college and the schools are doing well. But as the number of pupils is continually on the increase, it has become necessary to enlarge the college. First we have added a story and a top floor with an attic; then we have been obliged to construct a new building. And yet we are lacking room.”
One of its students, Damien (born as Jozef de Veuster,) arrived in Hawaiʻi on March 9, 1864, at the time a 24-year-old choirboy. Determined to become a priest, he had the remainder of the schooling at the College of Ahuimanu.
Bishop Maigret ordained Father Damien de Veuster at the Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace, on May 21, 1864; in 1873, Maigret assigned him to Molokaʻi. Damien spent the rest of his life in Hawaiʻi. In 2009, Father Damien was canonized by Pope Benedict XVI.
The College of Ahuimanu changed locations and also changed its name a couple of times. In 1881, it was renamed “College of St. Louis” in honor of Bishop Maigret’s patron Saint, Louis IX. It was the forerunner for Chaminade College and St Louis High School.
Bishop Maigret died on June 11, 1882, after 42 years of service in Hawaiʻi, 35 of those years as a Bishop. He is buried in a crypt below the Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace.
The image shows Louis Désiré Maigret. In addition, I have added other images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.
Captain Jacob Brown was “a follower of the sea from his twentieth year”.
The whalers of New Bedford and the other Eastern Ports fished the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. They were hunting for whale products that were in high demand – whale oil was used for heating, lamps and in industrial machinery; whale bone was used in corsets, skirt hoops, umbrellas and buggy whips.
In the Pacific, rich whaling waters were discovered near Japan and soon hundreds of ships headed for the area. The central location of the Hawaiian Islands between America and Japan brought many whaling ships to the Islands.
Whalers needed food and the islands supplied this need from its fertile lands.
William Rotch, the owner of several whaling vessels, was reportedly Nantucket’s greatest whaling merchant; he later moved to New Bedford. One of his ships was the Honqua (sometimes spelled Hoqua.)
Crew list records from the New Bedford ships’ registries show that Jacob Brown was First Mate on the Honqua on an Atlantic whale hunt from July 19, 1841 to June 29, 1843.
Then, on a September 1, 1843 to April 13, 1846 hunt into the Pacific, Brown was Captain. He later captained another Honqua Atlantic whaling ground sail from 1846 to 1849.
It’s not clear if there were intervening sailings, but on a whale hunt in the North Pacific, Brown captained one of “seven sails of this fine fleet of 1851, the Honqua, the New Bedford, the Arabella, the America, the Armata, the Mary Mitchell, and the Henry Thompson, (that were) wrecked there, and left behind as monuments of the dangers which meet these hardy mariners in their adventurous calling.”
“The Honqua, in 1851, was totally wrecked on a sunken rock in that sea (near Cape Oliver (Sea of Ochotsk, Russia – near the Arctic Circle.”))
Brown and his wife Cordelia Hastings Brown were shipwrecked and spent four months in the Siberian snows before being rescued by a whaling ship.
All was not lost, the rescuing Captain of the whaleship Canton, Captain James Allen Towners, purchased the salvaged whale oil of the Honqua (1,100 bbls of oil saved, however sold at a heavily discounted price.)
From Siberia, Brown and family were eventually brought to Hawaiʻi, by way of China.
After making a trip to his home in New Bedford, Massachusetts, Captain Brown returned to Hawaiʻi a year later, his family joining him in Honolulu six years later, and remained to take a part in the development of the islands.
He retired from the sea in 1852 to assume a government position in Honolulu which placed him in charge of all government wharves and buoys at the port.
He was also captain of the towing tug “Pele.” The “Pele” was the first steam tug used in Hawaiʻi (screw tug with thirty-horse power,) called into service in 1854.
Its primary use was for towing vessels in and out of the harbor and replaced the use of men or animals to bring ships into the harbor against the prevailing northeast tradewinds.
“Prior to the launching of this vessel primitive power was used to bring the craft through the passage to an anchorage; a rope of great length was used, and it was a never-to-be-forgotten sight to see yokes of oxen, teams of horses and natives tugging at the rope. A time was consumed in making a start, but when once in motion, it was a steady walk-away.”
Richards Street was aligned as a straight path used by groups of men, and later oxen, to pull ships through the narrow channel into the harbor.
In 1856, the Pele was also used to tow barges about the harbor in connection with the Honolulu Harbor dredging operations. Pele served, with short interruptions, as the sole tug for shipping at Honolulu until after 1882.
Brown is later noted as registered owner or partner in several boats in Honolulu: Warwick, Jenny, Haunani, James Makee and CR Bishop. These were typically used for inter-island movement of people and goods.
One of the partners was Thomas R Foster, an initial organizer of the Inter-Island Steam Navigation Company which was later incorporated on February 19, 1883. (Brown, a friend of Foster’s, was one of the original promoters of the Inter-Island Steam Navigation Company.) That company founded a subsidiary, Inter-Island Airways, that later changed its name to Hawaiian Airlines.
Born in 1815 to Jacob Brown and Ruth Morgan Brown, Captain Jacob Brown died on July 3, 1881 in Boston, Massachusetts, at the age of 66. He and members of his family are buried at Oʻahu Cemetery.
He was survived by three children, Jacob F Brown (Civil Engineer and Manager of Hawaiian Abstract & Title,) Arthur M Brown (Attorney, High Sheriff in the Territory of Hawaiʻi (1898-1906,)) and Minnie H (Brown) Gilman; his oldest child, Sarah M Brown, born at sea, later died at the age of 22.
The image shows Honolulu Harbor in 1854 (by Edward T Perkins.) In addition, I have added other related images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.
“A new road had been made around the foot of the mountain, the crookedest, rockiest, ever traveled by mortals. Our party consisted of five adults and five children. We had but two horses. One of these was in a decline on starting; it gave out in a few miles.”
“The other, ‘Old Lion,’ deserves to be immortalized for the services he performed that day, in carrying three and four children at a time on his broad back up and down that unsheltered, zigzag mountain road.”
“The wind from the other shore swept across it and was cooling us a little too rapidly after the intense heat of the day. To go farther without rest or aid was impossible.” (Laura Fish Judd, 1841)
The trail was hand-built before 1825 for horseback and foot travel between Wailuku and Lāhainā; it served as the most direct route across the steep southern slopes of West Maui Mountain.
Around 1900, the Lāhainā Pali Trail fell out of use when prison laborers built a one-way dirt road along the base of the pali. In 1911, a three-ton truck was the first vehicle to negotiate this road, having a difficult time making some of the sharp, narrow turns.
Over the years, the road was widened and straightened until 1951, when the modern Honoapiʻilani Highway cut out many of the 115 hairpin curves in the old pali road and a tunnel cleared the way through a portion of the route.
This was the first tunnel ever constructed on a public highway in Hawaiʻi – built on the Olowalu-Pali section of the Lāhainā-Wailuku Road (now Honoapiʻilani Highway,) completed on October 10, 1951. The tunnel is 286-feet long, 32-feet wide, and more than 22 feet high. (Schmidt)
Today, a remnant of the old trail is a recreational hike – five-miles long (from Māʻalaea to Ukumehame) and climbs to over 1,600-feet above sea level.
The Lāhainā Pali Trail has been restored and is maintained with volunteer assistance by the Na Ala Hele Statewide Trail and Access Program, State Division of Forestry and Wildlife (DOFAW,) within the Department of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR.)
The trail runs from a point Kahului side of Māʻalaea Harbor, over a ridge and down to a long, sandy beach with snorkeling, surfing and picnicking facilities.
Ranging in elevation from 100-feet to 1,600-feet, the trail offers excellent scenic vistas of Kahoʻolawe and Lānaʻi islands. Whales can be observed during the winter months.
Petroglyphs, stone walls and rocky outcrops mark the spots where long ago travelers stopped to rest. The mid-point of the trail is Kealalola Ridge, the southern rift zone of the volcano that formed West Maui. Pu’u (cinder hills) and natural cuts in the ridgeline expose the dramatic geologic history of this part of Maui.
The Lāhainā Pali Trail is a historic roadway. Damage to the trail or any archaeological sites along the trail is subject to penalties, as defined in Hawaiʻi Revised Statutes Chapter 6E.
Directions: Both trail heads are accessible from Honoapiʻilani Highway. The eastern trail head is 0.2 miles south of the junction of Honoapiʻilani Highway and Kihei Road .
The western trail head lies 1- mile south of Lāhainā and 3 miles west of Māʻalaea Harbor. The parking area is accessible from Highway 30 at Manawaipueo Gulch about 0.25-mile north of the Pali tunnel.
The image shows a view of Māʻalaea, Keālia and Haleakalā from the Lāhainā Pali Trail; in addition, I have added related images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.
What does that mean?
It’s the uses between “urban” and “agriculture” – it’s not really urban and it’s not really agriculture. It’s between the two and has the kind of land uses that share characteristics of each.
And, it’s generally what folks on the neighbor islands and parts of O‘ahu call their hometown areas.
For most places on the neighbor islands and many parts of Oʻahu we call this land use “Country” or “Rural” – it’s how the residents describe their communities and neighborhoods. But it is a lost land use.
Here’s the math: out of over 4-million acres of land in the State, only 11,602-acres (less than 1/3 of 1% of the total land area) is “Rural.”
“Urban” has only 198,600 acres (less than 5% of the total;) and the balance is split pretty evenly between Agricultural (47%) and Conservation (48%) (about 1.9-million acres, each.)
Why is so much of the state considered by its residents as “rural” or “country,” but State planning has so little land area designated as such?
We are living with a land use regulatory process that was written and mapped 50-years ago. Times have changed, yet the required updates to the mapping and associated regulations have not kept up with the times.
While the communities and Counties are more aware, sophisticated and up-to-date with their regional and locational planning, the State continues to look at land use with half-century old eyes.
Let’s correct this and call this regional land use what the people call it – Rural (Better yet, what about “Country?”) – and , let’s also update and improve on “Rural” use standards.
Uses in the Rural district cannot simply and only be ½-acre minimum lot size home-site development projects (as they are limited to, today.)
Rural communities are “communities.”
There are community centers, houses, stores, schools and parks – where there are places where people interact, live, work, learn and play. They are not simply home-sites.
The Rural Land Use Designation does not presently permit these small town and diverse uses … it should.
Many Rural communities, whether primarily Ag-based or simply “country,” don’t want urban design standards – they want characteristics that reflect their relaxed lifestyle.
We need to amend the State planning maps to accurately reflect these uses, broaden the uses permitted in the Rural district and finally define what has been and is actually happening.
Again, let’s not let Honolulu bias impose upon or dictate to others.
Honolulu urban design standards are not the be all and end all across the state.
I remember when Waimea on the Big Island got its first traffic signal in the middle of town. For a few years, cowboys and others on horseback going through town would lean down and press the “walk” button to cross the street.
They are gone now, because the grass shoulders have been taken over by curbs, gutters and sidewalks – not very friendly to rural lifestyles.
For some reason, the initial land use mapping and permitted uses of the early 1960s left out Rural – even though that’s what a lot of people called their lifestyle.
It’s time to correctly map and expand our land uses (even rethink the need to have the State tell the neighbor island communities how they should look) … that means a generous amount of land should be in the “Rural” district with uses that fit the rural/country lifestyle – for now and into the future.
The image shows a friendly reminder of how life once was in Waimea on the Big Island.