The Statue of Liberty was made in France and was proposed by Edouard de Laboulaye, sculpted by Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi and funded by the French people.
It was shipped in 1885 to New York and placed onto Liberty Island in New York Harbor. It wasn’t dedicated by Grover Cleveland until on October 28, 1886.
That year, John Pemberton begins selling his formula (a mixture of cocaine and caffeine) at Jacob’s Pharmacy in Atlanta, Georgia.
It was initially sold as a patent medicine for five cents a glass at soda fountains. Coca Cola no longer contains Cocaine but that is how it got its name.
Geronimo (Mescalero-Chiricahua: Goyaałé [kòjàːɬɛ́] “the one who yawns” (June 16, 1829 – February 17, 1909) was a prominent leader from the Bedonkohe band of the Chiricahua Apache tribe.
From 1850 to 1886 Geronimo joined with members of three other Chiricahua Apache bands – the Chihenne, the Chokonen and the Nednhi – to carry out numerous raids as well as resistance to US and Mexican military campaigns in the northern Mexico states of Chihuahua and Sonora, and in the southwestern American territories of New Mexico and Arizona.
Geronimo’s raids and related combat actions were a part of the prolonged period of the Apache-American conflict that started with American settlement in Apache lands following the end of the war with Mexico in 1848.
In 1886, Geronimo, described by one follower as ‘the most intelligent and resourceful … most vigorous and farsighted’ of the Apache leaders, surrendered to General Nelson A Miles in Skeleton Canyon, Arizona, after more than a decade of guerilla warfare against American and Mexican settlers in the Southwest.
The terms of surrender require Geronimo and his tribe to settle in Florida, where the Army hopes he can be contained. (In 1894, Geronimo and others were relocated at Fort Sill, Oklahoma.)
The National Geographic Society, founded on January 27, 1888 in Washington DC, has gone on to become the world’s largest scientific and geographical distribution organization.
Its original premise was ‘for the increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge.’ In the field, National Geographic has supported exploration, education and conservation and a number of geological, natural and literary sources since 1888.
In 1888, George Eastman introduced the Kodak No 1, a simple and inexpensive Box Camera that brings photography to all. Because of their simplicity, ease of use and cost, the cameras became an enormous success.
That year, Scottish Inventor John Boyd Dunlop patents the first practical pneumatic or inflatable tyre. Also that year, on August 31, 1888, the first victim of the murderer called ‘Jack the Ripper’ was discovered in London.
The Eiffel Tower, or the Tour Eiffel, was opened on March 31, 1889, and was the work of a Gustave Eiffel, who was a bridge engineer.
It was made for the centenary of the French Revolution and was chosen over one hundred other plans that were given. Eiffel’s engineering skills would preface later architectural designs.
The Tower stands at twice the height of both the St Peter’s Basilica and the Great Pyramid of Giza. Its metallic construction was completed within months.
On June 21, 1887, Britain celebrated the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria, which marked the 50th year of her reign. Queen Kapiʻolani Princess Lili‘uokalani and her husband General Dominis, C.P. Iaukea, Governor of Oahu, Colonel J.H. Boyd, Mr. Sevellon Brown, Captain D.M. Taylor, and Lieutenant C.R.P. Rodgers, and four servants attended the Jubilee.
Queen Kapiʻolani brought along Liliʻuokalani to serve as her interpreter. Even though Kapiʻolani was raised to understand English, she would speak only Hawaiian. Newspapers noted that Liliʻuokalani was fluent in English while Kapiʻolani spoke ‘clumsily.’ (UH Manoa Library)
Queen Kapiʻolani had left the Islands under stress. Just before she left, Liliʻuokalani and Kalākaua’s sister, Miriam Likelike, wife of Archibald Cleghorn and mother of Princess Kaʻiulani, died on February 2, 1887. Her return was under stress, and expedited, as well.
Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubilee was held on June 20 and 21, 1887. On June 30, 1887, the Honolulu Rifles demanded that King Kalākaua dismiss his cabinet and form a new one.
Within days, with firearms in hand, the Hawaiian League presented King Kalākaua with a new constitution. Kalākaua signed the constitution under threat of use of force. (hawaiibar-org) As a result, the new constitution earned the nickname, The Bayonet Constitution.
“Queen Kapiʻolani and party reached (New York) from London (on July 11.) The queen expressed a wish to return home as soon as possible consistent with the health of the suite. It was decided not to stop more than a day or two at the longest in New York.”
“The queen … had been inclined to tears when she first heard the news of the Hawaiian revolution”. (Bismarck Weekly Tribune, July 15, 1887) Queen Kapiʻolani returned to Hawai‘i on July 26, 1887.
On July 30, 1889, Robert William Wilcox led a rebellion to restore the rights of the monarchy, two years after the Bayonet Constitution had left King Kalākaua a mere ﬁgurehead.
By the evening, Wilcox became a prisoner and charged with high treason by the government. He was tried for treason, but acquitted by the jury.
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