The Qing dynasty (Manchu dynasty,) ruling from 1644 to 1912, was the last imperial dynasty of China. The First Sino-Japanese War (August 1, 1894 – April 17, 1895) was fought between the Qing Empire of China and the Empire of Japan.
The primary interest was control of Korea. As part of that war, in March 1895, Japan forces attacked the Chinese-controlled Taiwan. Japan won that battle and the war.
The Treaty of Shimonoseki ended the First Sino-Japanese War and through it China gave full control of Korea and Taiwan to Japan. Taiwan (also referred to as Formosa) was under Japanese rule from 1895 and 1945.
“In the heart of the savage territory of the island of Formosa rises Mt Morrison, the highest mountain in the Orient, east of the Himalayas. …”
“The mountain was so named to commemorate the memory of the Reverend Robert Morrison, the first protestant missionary to China … in the year 1842.” (Arnold, 1908)
“When the Japanese took possession of Formosa in the year 1895 she re-christened the mountain Niitaka-yama, which means new high mountain; Fuji-yama, sacred to the heart of every Japanese, being thus relegated to the position of old high mountain.” (Arnold, 1908)
The renaming of the mountain “Nii-taka-yama, that is, the ‘New High Mountain,’ (is an) allusion to the fact that this (was) the last to be added to the empire, being also the highest, – higher than Fuji itself.” (Handbook for Travellers in Japan, 1903)
Then, on December 2, 1941 (Tokyo Time,) a coded message, ‘Niitakayama Nobore’ (“Climb Mount Niitaka”) was sent to all Imperial Japanese Navy units.
Approaching the International Date Line from the west at that time were six Japanese aircraft carriers, Akagi, Kaga, Soryu, Hiryu, Shokaku and Zuikaku, along with over ten escorts and supply ships.
Receiving this signal Vice Admiral Nagumo Chuichi, went to his cabin onboard his flagship, the aircraft carrier Akagi, and opened a set of Top Secret documents, which told him, and those that opened the same order throughout the fleet, that on December 8 (the 7th on the Pearl Harbor side of the International Date Line) Japan would be going to war. (Johnson)
Previously, the Japanese force assembled 2 battleships, 6 carriers, 3 cruisers, approximately 20 destroyers and 5 submarines, including midgets which were carried by mother submarines.
The force departed at 6 am, November 26, Japan time, and set an indirect northern course for the next rendezvous, 200 miles north of Oahu. On December 6, when the force was still 800 miles north of O‘ahu; it received the long awaited code message.
When the Japanese attacked, 86 vessels, including 8 battleships, 7 cruisers, 28 destroyers and 5 submarines, plus the usual complement of small craft, were based in the harbor (there were no aircraft carriers moored at Pearl Harbor at the time.) (Morris)
In the Islands, the message: “Air Raid, Pearl Harbor. This is no drill” came at 0755 on December 7, as Japanese planes swept overhead in an attempt to cripple the Pacific Fleet.
The first wave of 183-planes (43-fighters, 49-high-level bombers, 51-dive bombers and 40-torpedo planes) struck its targets at 7:55 am. The second wave of 167-Japanese planes (35-fighters, 54-horizontal bombers and 78-dive bombers) struck Oʻahu beginning at 8:40 am.
By 9:45 am, the Japanese attack on Oʻahu was over.
(Today, Niitakayama is known as Mount Yushan (Jade Mountain) and is part of Yushan National Park, the largest national park in Taiwan.)