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“It had been the custom, from time immemorial, on the death of any great chief, especially of the king, for the people to give themselves up to universal licentiousness; – to the indiscriminate prostitution of females; – to theft and robbery; – to revenge and murder.”

In the early nineteenth century, makaʻāinana women flocked to the European ships and port towns in large numbers to partake in the lucrative trade in sexual services, one of the few ways that makaʻāinana could acquire foreign goods. Boki’s “Polelewa became a place where … licentious indulgence became common at night …. The foreigners came to these resorts to find women.” Aiʻenui (Deep-in-debt) they were called because of his heavy debts.

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In former times, the area we now call downtown Honolulu was not called Honolulu; instead, each land section had its own name.  (A map in

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