Today’s ‘Timeline Tuesday’ takes us through the 1890s – Kapi‘olani Hospital is formed, Kalākaua dies, Overthrow, Annexation, Pali Road is completed and the first Beachboys organization is formed. We look at what was happening in Hawai‘i during this time period and what else was happening around the rest of the world.
“Scorning the opinions and advice of all the best men of the Islands, both of her own race and the whites, she finally united her political fortunes with the opium ring and those who were leagued to carry through the Legislature a sweeping lottery charter of the Louisiana type … This was Saturday, January 14, 1893. From that hour the Hawaiian monarchy was dead …” Stevens, The North American Review, December 1893)
However, a recent revelation (part of the Provisional Government Papers at the Hawaiian Mission Houses Archives and Historic Site) notes a January 17, 1893 ‘Private’ correspondence between Stevens and Dole that suggests that the US de facto recognition of the Provisional Government had been prepared prior to the takeover of the Government Buildings. That note from Stevens to Dole states: “I would advise not to make known of my recognition of the de facto Provisional Government until said Government is in possession of the Police Station.” (Stevens, January 17, 1893)
The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 lasted 110-minutes, from 7:55 am until 9:45 am. At 11:30 am, December 7, 1941, Governor Poindexter exercised his powers and “declare(d) and proclaim(ed) a defense period to exist throughout the Territory of Hawaiʻi.” Later that day, he placed the Territory of Hawaiʻi under martial law.
This was not the first proclamation of martial law in the Islands. On January 17, 1893, martial law was declared by the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands. Then, on January 7, 1895, Republic of Hawaiʻi President Sanford B Dole declared martial law; it lasted until March 18, 1895.
Many references to the overthrow of Hawai‘i’s constitutional monarch on January 17, 1893 say it was ‘bloodless,’ suggesting no one was injured.
However, that is not the case; “A policeman named Leialoha was shot in the breast by John Good about 2:30 o’clock this afternoon on Fort street.” Leialoha was afterwards taken to the hospital, and in time entirely recovered from his wound.