Kalaniʻōpuʻu was born about 1729, his brother was Keōua; his son was Kiwalaʻō; he was the grandfather of Keōpūolani. Kalaniʻōpuʻu, from the very beginning of his reign, made repeated attempts to conquer the neighboring island of Maui. He held portions of the Hāna district and the Kaʻuiki area in 1775.
At the time of Captain Cook’s arrival (1778-1779), Kalaniʻōpuʻu was on the island of Maui. Kalaniʻōpuʻu returned to Hawaiʻi and met with Cook on January 26, 1779. Back on Maui, Kahekili asked “How can the fortress of Kaʻuiki become a level plain?” Later (1781,) Kahekili was able to regain possession of the Hana district and this marked the beginning of the disintegration of Kalaniʻōpuʻu’s kingdom.