Kauai is the fourth largest island in the Hawaiian chain, comprised of a land area of 352,000-acres. Kauai was traditionally divided into 5 moku (districts) including: Koʻolau, Haleleʻa, Nā Pali, Kona and Puna. Moku were changed in the late 1800s to Kawaihau, Hanalei, Waimea, Kōloa and Līhuʻe. In 1877, Hanalei and Līhuʻe shared a common boundary. Kawaihau was set apart by King Kalākaua, who gave that name to the property lying between the Wailua River and Moloa‘a Valley.
Formerly, Anahola (fish poison cave) was part of the moku or district of Ko‘olau. The Kalale‘a mountain at Anahola includes two prominent mountain peaks known as Hōkū‘alele peak and Kalale‘a Mountain. This latter pu‘u can be seen from land and sea and is spoken of in chants and mele. With the Anahola Stream as its main water source, generations of native Hawaiians thrived in the ahupua‘a of Anahola inhabiting mostly the valley and nearby coastal areas.