My recent post concerning nationality versus race in the “ongoing claims and discussions about restoring the Hawaiian Government that was deposed on January 17, 1893” has, unfortunately, produced some nasty remarks (however, I will note, some were very positive.)
As noted in the piece, “The Hawaiian nation was overthrown … not the Hawaiian race (it was a constitutional monarchy, not race-limited).”
I noted, “A lot of non-kanaka maoli were born in the Islands or became naturalized citizens, or are descendants of such. By laws and practice, they, too, are Hawaiian citizens … history and the laws related to Hawaiian citizen status are clear and unambiguous.”
“Yet, to date, apparently, the only people permitted to exercise their rights related to discussions on restoration, reparation, sovereignty, independence, etc related to the Hawaiian nation have been those of one race, the native Hawaiians.”
I raised the question, “Why aren’t all Hawaiian citizens included in the recognition and sovereignty discussions and decisions today?”
No one refuted with facts or explained an answer to the question; several responded with vulgarities and racist insults. Such as (I have edited the vulgar words:)
“… your true White colors are showing. …”
“…you’re a f**king dummy….Former criminal at DLNR …”
“This underlining racist haole is prevalent in Hawai’is dark f**king history.
As a kid growing up in the Islands, we had a name for people who reverted to name calling, vulgarities and intimidation when the facts didn’t support their theories. Today, these folks are universally referred to as ‘bullies.’
What happened to the concept of common decency … and a courteous and intellectual exchange between people?
Unfortunately, laws had to be created because our society standards have been lowered to a level that some, apparently, feel they can do and say anything to anyone, including over the ‘anonymity’ of the internet. Actually, the internet is not anonymous.
There are laws against bullying, including cyberbullying. It is an offense when a person engages “with intent to harass, annoy, or alarm another person, or in reckless disregard of the risk thereof” – including “by means of any form of electronic communication.”
“The legislature found that harassing or insulting electronic communications are a form of harassment that can be just as severe or punishing as other verbal communications or offensive contacts.”
OK, back to the issue at hand – while refusing to face the facts, history and the law, some suggest “It is Hawaii…Hawaiians make the choices …Hawaiians should be resorting and reshaping Hawaii and our culture …we aren’t going to let immigrants reshape our culture.”
So, how did the aliʻi feel about the non-native Hawaiians? (There is a lot to say about this, but since haole was mentioned, I’ll limit this to a summary on some Caucasians (or haole, as some would call them,) for now:)
The historical record is clear – from Kamehameha I to Liliʻuokalani, the aliʻi befriended, sought counsel and even married Caucasians and other foreigners. As examples:
Foreigners supported Kamehameha I, including John Young, Isaac Davis, Don Francisco de Paula Marin, George Beckley and Alexander Adams (and others.)
One can only speculate what might have happened had these foreigners not aligned with Kamehameha. However, it is clear, with their help, he became Kamehameha the Great. Without these and other foreigners, Hawaiʻi’s history may have been significantly different.
Kamehameha III chose American missionaries Amos Starr Cooke and Gerrit Parmele Judd to serve as teacher and physician for the children of the seven families who were eligible under succession laws stated in the 1840 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i.
In a letter requesting Cooke to teach and Judd to care for the children, King Kamehameha III wrote, “Greetings to you all, Teachers – Where are you, all you teachers? We ask Mr. Cooke to be teacher for our royal children. He is the teacher of our royal children and Dr. Judd is the one to take care of the royal children because we two hold Dr Judd as necessary for the children and also in certain difficulties between us and you all.”
Kamehameha III called on seven boys and seven girls to board in the Chief’s Children’s School. No school in Hawai‘i has ever produced so many Hawaiian leaders in one generation.
In this school were educated the Hawai‘i sovereigns who reigned over the Hawaiian people from 1855, namely, Alexander Liholiho (King Kamehameha IV,) Queen Emma, Lot Kamehameha (King Kamehameha V,) King William Lunalilo, King David Kalākaua and Queen Lydia Lili‘uokalani.
In addition, the following royal family members were taught there: Princess Bernice Pauahi Bishop, Princess Elizabeth Kekaaniau Pratt, Prince Moses Kekuaiwa, Princess Jane Loeau Jasper, Princess Victoria Kamāmalu, Prince Peter Young Kaeo, Prince William Pitt Kīnaʻu, Princess Abigail Maheha, Prince James Kaliokalani and Princess Mary Polly Paʻaʻāina.
The last of the Kamehameha’s, Kamehameha V, had a Caucasian (John Owen Dominis) as a secretary and advisor. “On the accession to the throne of Prince Lot as Kamehameha V., the last of the Hawaiian monarchs to bear that name, my husband (John Owen Dominis) was at once appointed his private secretary and confidential adviser, which position he occupied during the entire reign.” (Liliʻuokalani)
“The king was surrounded by his own people, with whom he was in perfect accord, but showed this mark of royal favor to my husband simply because he preferred to advise with him on matters of public importance.” (Liliʻuokalani)
Hawaiʻi’s last queen, Queen Liliʻuokalani, was married to a Caucasian, John Owen Dominis. This shows her acceptance of being a lifelong partner with a non-kanaka maoli – of the marriage she noted, “My husband was extremely kind and considerate to me”.
Dominis died before the overthrow – related to that, Queen Liliʻuokalani noted, “His death occurred at a time when his long experience in public life, his amiable qualities, and his universal popularity, would have made him an adviser to me for whom no substitute could possibly be found.”
“I have often said that it pleased the Almighty Ruler of nations to take him away from me at precisely the time when I felt that I most needed his counsel and companionship.” (Liliʻuokalani)
Kalākaua and Liliʻuokalani’s sister, Miriam Likelike, was also married to a Caucasian, Archibald Scott Cleghorn. The Cleghorns had one child Kaʻiulani – “the only member of the Royal Family having issue.”
Princess Kaʻiulani was not the only royal who was part-Caucasian – Emma, a future queen, was born to Fanny Kekelaokalani Young, daughter of John Young, King Kamehameha I’s Caucasian counselor, and Kaʻoanaʻeha, Kamehameha’s niece. Her father was high chief George Naea.
As was the custom, Emma was offered to her mother’s sister, Grace Kamaikui Rooke (the second daughter of John Young) and her husband, Dr Thomas Charles Byde Rooke (a Caucasian) as hānai daughter. Unable to have children of their own, the Rookes adopted Emma. Queen Emma was part Caucasian and she was raised by Caucasians.
We can’t forget that Princess Bernice Pauahi was also married to a Caucasian (Charles Reed Bishop.)
Following contact, Caucasians were actively involved with all of the aliʻi – they were befriended and served as personal and significant advisors to the aliʻi. Aliʻi sought their advice and put them in places of importance – many of these were missionaries.
Back then, there was an obvious tolerance by the Hawaiian leadership in engaging and including Caucasians (and other foreigners) in various matters.
I guess some, today, are not willing to accept the history, nor do they appear to have the tolerance of those from the past.
Again, back to the basic point of the prior post that raised these unfortunate and inappropriate comments, “A lot of non-kanaka maoli were born in the Islands or became naturalized citizens, or are descendants of such. By laws and practice, they, too, are Hawaiian citizens … history and the laws related to Hawaiian citizen status are clear and unambiguous.”
The question remains, why aren’t all Hawaiian citizens included in the recognition and sovereignty discussions and decisions today?
(The image shows the letter Kamehameha III sent to the American (Caucasian) missionaries, asking Cooke and Judd to teach and serve the children of the aliʻi (including all of the subsequent Kings and Queens of the Hawaiian kingdom.))