Hostilities of Kamehameha’s conquest on Hawai‘i Island supposedly ended with the death of Keōua at Kawaihae Harbor in early-1792 and the placement of the vanquished chief’s body at Puʻukoholā Heiau at Kawaihae.
The island was under the rule of Kamehameha. However, after a short time, another chief entered into a power dispute with Kamehameha; his name was Nāmakehā.
In 1795, Kamehameha asked Nāmakehā, who lived in Kaʻū, Hawai‘i, for help in fighting Kalanikūpule and his Maui forces on O‘ahu, but Nāmakehā ignored the invitation. Instead, he opted to rebel against Kamehameha by tending to his enemies in Kaʻū, Puna and Hilo on Hawai‘i Island.
Hostilities erupted between the two. The battle took place at Hilo. Kamehameha defeated Nāmakehā; his warriors next turned their rage upon the villages and families of the vanquished. The alarm was given of their approach.
A family, who had supported Nāmakehā, the father (Ke‘au) taking his wife (Kamohoʻula) and two children fled to the mountains. There he concealed himself for several days with his family in a cave. (Brumaghim) The warriors found the family and killed the adults.
A survivor, a son, ʻŌpūkahaʻia, was at the age of ten or twelve; both his parents were slain before his eyes. The only surviving member of the family, besides himself, was an infant brother he hoped to save from the fate of his parents, and carried him on his back and fled from the enemy.
But he was pursued, and his little brother, while on his back, was killed by a spear from the enemy. Taken prisoner, because he was not young enough to give them trouble, nor old enough to excite their fears, ʻŌpūkahaʻia was not killed.
He was later turned over to his uncle, Pahua, who took him into his own family and treated him as his child. Pahua was a kahuna at Hikiʻau Heiau in Kealakekua Bay.
When Captain Vancouver visited the islands in the 1790s, he provided the following description of Hikiʻau:
“Adjoining one side of the Square was the great Morai (heiau,) where there stood a kind of steeple (‘anu‘u) that ran up to the height of 60 or 70 feet, it was in square form, narrowing gradually towards the top where it was square and flat; it is built of very slight twigs & laths, placed horizontally and closely, and each lath hung with narrow pieces of white Cloth.”
“… next to this was a House occupied by the Priests, where they performed their religious ceremonies and the whole was enclosed by a high railing on which in many parts were stuck skulls of those people, who had fallen victims to the Wrath of their Deity. …. In the center of the Morai stood a preposterous figure carved out of wood larger than life representing the … supreme deity… .”
John Papa ʻI‘i wrote that in ca. 1812-1813, shortly after Kamehameha’s return to Hawai‘i, the king celebrated the Makahiki and in the course of doing so he rededicated Hikiʻau, “the most important heiau in the district of Kona”.
This is the same place where Captain Cook landed on the Island of Hawaiʻi, across the bay from Hikiʻau Heiau is where Cook was later killed.
ʻŌpūkahaʻia’s uncle, wanting his nephew to follow him as a kahuna, taught ʻŌpūkahaʻia long prayers and trained him to the task of repeating them daily in the temple of the idol. This ceremony he sometimes commenced before sunrise in the morning, and at other times was employed in it during the whole or the greater part of the night.
ʻŌpūkahaʻia was not destined to be a kahuna.
He made a life-changing decision – not only which affected his life, but had a profound effect on the future of the Hawaiian Islands.
“I began to think about leaving that country, to go to some other part of the globe. I did not care where I shall go to. I thought to myself that if I should get away, and go to some other country, probably I may find some comfort, more than to live there, without father and mother.” (ʻŌpūkahaʻia)
In 1807, he boarded an American a ship in Kealakekua Bay, the Triumph, under the command of Captain Brintnal; also on Board was Thomas Hopu. They set sail for New York, stopping first in China (selling seal-skins and loading the ship with Chinese goods.)
Also on Board was Russell Hubbard, a son of Gen. Hubbard of New Haven, Connecticut. “This Mr. Hubbard was a member of Yale College. He was a friend of Christ. Christ was with him when I saw him, but I knew it not. ‘Happy is the man that put his trust in God!’ Mr. Hubbard was very kind to me on our passage, and taught me the letters in English spelling-book.” (ʻŌpūkahaʻia)
In 1809, they landed at New York and remained there until the Captain sold out all the Chinese goods. Then, they made their way to New England.
“In this place I become acquainted with many students belonging to the College. By these pious students I was told more about God than what I had heard before … Many times I wished to hear more about God, but find no body to interpret it to me. I attended many meetings on the sabbath, but find difficulty to understand the minister. I could understand or speak, but very little of the English language. Friend Thomas (Hopu) went to school to one of the students in the College before I thought of going to school.” (ʻŌpūkahaʻia)
ʻŌpūkahaʻia’s life in New England was greatly influenced by many young men with proven sincerity and religious fervor that were active in the Second Great Awakening and the establishment of the missionary movement. These men had a major impact on ʻŌpūkahaʻia’s enlightenment in Christianity and his vision to return to Hawaiʻi as a Christian missionary.
He was taken into the family of the Rev. Dr. Dwight, President of Yale College, for a season; where he was treated with kindness, and taught the first principles of Christianity. At length, Mr. Samuel J. Mills, took him under his particular patronage, and sent him to live with his father, the Rev. Mr. Mills of Torringford.
By 1817, a dozen students, six of them Hawaiians, were training at the Foreign Mission School to become missionaries to teach the Christian faith to people around the world.
ʻŌpūkahaʻia improved his English by writing; the story of his life was later assembled into a book called “Memoirs of Henry Obookiah” (the spelling of his name based on its sound, prior to establishment of the formal Hawaiian alphabet.) ʻŌpūkahaʻia, inspired by many young men with proven sincerity and religious fervor of the missionary movement, had wanted to spread the word of Christianity back home in Hawaiʻi; his book inspired 14-missionaries to volunteer to carry his message to the Sandwich Islands (now known as Hawaiʻi.)
On October 23, 1819, the Pioneer Company of missionaries from the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM) from the northeast United States, set sail on the Thaddeus for the Sandwich Islands (now known as Hawai‘i.)
There were seven couples sent to convert the Hawaiians to Christianity. These included two Ordained Preachers, Hiram Bingham and his wife Sybil and Asa Thurston and his wife Lucy; two Teachers, Mr. Samuel Whitney and his wife Mercy and Samuel Ruggles and his wife Mary; a Doctor, Thomas Holman and his wife Lucia; a Printer, Elisha Loomis and his wife Maria; a Farmer, Daniel Chamberlain, his wife and five children.
Along with them were four Hawaiian youths who had been students at the Foreign Mission School at Cornwall Connecticut, Thomas Hopu (his friend on board the ship when he first left the Islands,) William Kanui, John Honoliʻi and Prince Humehume (son of Kauaiʻi’s King Kaumuali‘i and also known as Prince George Kaumuali‘i.)
Unfortunately, ʻŌpūkahaʻia died suddenly of typhus fever in 1818 and did not fulfill his dream of returning to the islands to preach the gospel. (The bulk of the information here is from ʻŌpūkahaʻia’s “Memoirs of Henry Obookiah” and Papaʻula, 1867 in Brumaghim)
The image shows ʻŌpūkahaʻia. In addition, I have added some other images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.
The YWCA of Oʻahu is the oldest continuous service organization devoted to women and children in Hawaiʻi; in 1900, a small group of women met at Mrs. BF Dillingham’s home at Arcadia on Punahou Street to organize the YWCA.
From the beginning, the YWCA was organized to provide the working women of Honolulu a safe place to build friendships, develop or maintain solid values and learn skills to become more productive members of the community; but over the years, the vehicles for accomplishing those goals have changed in response to the times.
In 1904, the headquarters was housed in the Boston Building on Fort Street. YWCA girls’ basketball team competed with teams from Oʻahu College (Punahou Schools) and Kamehameha. Engleside (the first boarding home located at 251 Vineyard) opened and was jointly operated with the YMCA.
By 1906, when it joined the YWCA of the USA, recreational and athletic programs including tennis and swimming classes had been added. The first YWCA residence for young working women, The Homestead (the former Castle Estate on King Street,) was opened and addressed community concerns over the lack of safe and affordable housing accommodations in Hawaiʻi.
“The YWCA of Honolulu has its rooms in the Boston building, on Fort street, and while not as aggressive as their bretheren, are nevertheless filling a much-needed niche in the community for the comradeship and comfort of an increasing body of young women coming as strangers in a strange land. In connection with its work a home is maintained on King street, of the Castle Estate, designated the Homestead, for the benefit of members and other bachelor maids.” (Thrum, 1914)
In 1914, the first Business Women’s Club was established. By 1917, even the Queen was a member of the YWCA. The Red Cross had moved into the YWCA and a worker had been hired to help Japanese picture brides.
In 1921, the Atherton family gifted their near-downtown residence, Fernhurst, to the YWCA in memory of their daughter, Kate, and in tribute to her deep interest in the welfare of girls. The original Fernhurst served as a temporary home for as many as 10,000 young working women.
As membership and programs grew, a headquarters was needed. Several downtown locations were considered. They settled on a site on Richards Street across from the ʻIolani Palace grounds.
Noted architect, Julia Morgan (best known as the architect of Hearst Castle in California,) was hired and the new headquarters, Laniākea, “was designed and erected from two thousand miles away.”
Laniākea was the first building of architectural significance in Hawaiʻi to be designed by a woman. Constructed in 1927, it was developed and designed by women at a time in history when there were few opportunities for females to excel in male dominated professions.
Ms. Morgan designed over 700-buildings during her 47-year career and ranked the Honolulu YWCA as one of her top ten favorite projects. It immediately became a Honolulu landmark.
The building’s construction was a crowning achievement for the YWCA of Honolulu, inspiring successive generations of women to rededicate themselves to the cause of community service.
The building features the tile floors, roofs, courtyards, and arches characteristic of the Mediterranean style, which the architect chose to adapt to the climate, conditions and materials of Hawaiʻi.
Morgan regarded the structure as architecturally “frank and sincere.” She was not given to meaningless ornamentation, yet there is considerable attention to detail, such as the metal ironwork in the balconies overlooking the courtyard and the pool.
Sara Boutelle (an architectural historian) judged the Laniākea swimming pool “the most effective of all her YWCA pools,” attributing its success to the architect’s understanding of the contribution of public recreational space to the civic culture and busy lives of women.
The “Richards Street Y,” as it is affectionately known, was a meeting place for women of all generations. Popular activities were sewing and lace-making lessons, Chinese cooking classes, girls basketball and ballet.
From a place to make tea, eat safely and quietly in the city, and take naps, to a place to make the teapot, close a deal over lunch and swim laps, the YWCA of Oʻahu has been the place for women in Hawaiʻi to find support and encouragement for over 100-years.
Today, the YWCA of Oʻahu is still guided by the core concepts of the YWCA’s mission. Those concepts are to create opportunities for growth, leadership and power for women and girls, and to work for peace, justice, dignity, respect and the elimination of racism for all people. (Lots of information and images here came from the YWCA website.)
The image shows Laniākea in 1927 (YWCA.) In addition, I have added some related images and maps in the Photos section on my Facebook and Google+ pages.
In 1828, the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Mission (ABCFM) sent 20-people in the Third Company of missionaries to Hawaiʻi, including four ministers and their wives.
A physician and his wife accompanied the ministers, Dr. Gerrit Parmele Judd and Laura Fish Judd. Dr. Judd was sent to replace Dr. Abraham Blatchely, who, because of poor health, had left Hawaiʻi the previous year.
Judd, a medical missionary, had originally come to the islands to serve as the missionary physician, intending to treat native Hawaiians for the growing number of diseases introduced by foreigners. He immersed himself in the Hawaiian community, becoming a fluent speaker of Hawaiian. Judd soon became an adviser to and supporter of King Kamehameha III.
In May 1842, Judd was asked to leave the Mission and accept an appointment as “translator and recorder for the government,” and as a member of the “treasury board,” with instructions to aid Oʻahu’s Governor Kekūanāoʻa in the transaction of business with foreigners.
Up to that time there was no real financial system. The public revenues were received by the King and no distinction was made between his private income and that which belonged to the government or public. Judd, as chairman of the treasury board, was responsible to organize a public accounting system. (Hawaiian Mission Centennial Book)
As chairman of the treasury board he not only organized a system, he also helped to pay off a large public indebtedness and placed the government on a firm financial footing. (Hawaiian Mission Centennial Book)
In early-1843, Lord George Paulet, purportedly representing the British Crown, overstepped his bounds, landed sailors and marines, seized the government buildings in Honolulu and forced King Kamehameha III to cede the Hawaiian kingdom to Great Britain.
Paulet raised the British flag and issued a proclamation formally annexing Hawaii to the British Crown. This event became known as the Paulet Affair.
Judd secretly removed public papers to the Pohukaina mausoleum on the grounds of what is now ʻIolani Palace to prevent British naval officers from taking them. He used the mausoleum as his office; by candlelight, and using the coffin of Kaʻahumanu as a writing desk, Judd wrote appeals to London and Washington to free Hawaiʻi from the rule of Paulet.
His plea, heard in Britain and the US, was successful, and after five-months of occupation, the Hawaiian Kingdom was restored and Adm. Thomas ordered the Union Jack removed and replaced with the Hawaiian kingdom flag.
Judd stood beside the King on the steps of Kawaiahaʻo Church to announce the news, translating Admiral Thomas’ declaration into Hawaiian for the crowd.
In November 1843, Judd was appointed secretary of state for foreign affairs, with the full responsibility of dealing with the foreign representatives. He was succeeded by Mr. RC Wyllie, in March 1845, and was then appointed minister of the interior.
By that time, the King had become convinced that the ancient system of land tenure was not compatible with the progress of the nation, and he resolved to provide for a division of the lands which would terminate the feudal nature of land tenure (eventually, the Great Māhele was held, dividing the land between the King, Government, Chiefs and common people.
As part of the Māhele, on Judd’s recommendation, a law was passed that provided for the appointment of a commission to hear and adjudicate claims for land. Such claims were based on prior use or possession by the chiefs and others; successful claims were issued Awards from the Land Commission.
In 1846, Judd was transferred from the post of minister of the interior to that of minister of finance (which he held until 1853, when by resignation, he terminated his service with the government.)
In 1850, King Kamehameha III sold approximately 600-acres of land on the windward side of Oʻahu to Judd. In 1864, Judd and his son-in-law, Samuel Wilder, formed a sugar plantation and built a major sugar mill there; a few remains of this sugar mill still exist next to the Kamehameha Highway.
Later, additional acreage in the Hakipuʻu and Kaʻaʻawa valleys were added to the holdings (it’s now called Kualoa Ranch.)
In 1852, Judd served with Chief Justice Lee and Judge John Ii on a commission to draft a new constitution, which subsequently was submitted to and passed by the legislature and duly proclaimed
It was much more complete in detail than the constitution of 1840, and separated the three coordinate branches of the government in accordance with modern ideas.
Judd wrote the first medical book in the Hawaiian language. Later, Judd formed the first Medical School in the Islands. Ten students were accepted when it opened in 1870, all native Hawaiians (the school had a Hawaiians-only admissions policy.)
Judd participated in a pivotal role in Medicine, Finance, Law, Sovereignty, Land Tenure and Governance in the Islands. Gerrit P Judd died in Honolulu on July 12, 1873.
“He was a man of energy, courage and sincerity of purpose. He was an able physician, and he developed great aptitude for the administration of public affairs. The benefit of his talents was freely and liberally given to a people who he knew needed and deserved assistance.” (Hawaiian Mission Centennial Book)
The image shows Gerrit P Judd. In addition, I have included other images in a folder of like name in the Photos section on my Google+ page.
December 13, 1958 – 8-months before Hawaiʻi became a state … it was described as a typical trade wind, Windward Oʻahu day; the sky was clear; the water was a little rough with whitecaps and there were good-sized waves.
Six friends, ages 9 to 15, were doing what kids do, then and now; they had paddled and rowed out to the Mokulua Islands to surf and play in the water.
Along with an 8-foot boat, they had three surfboards and three air mattresses. The boys kept together; never was one more than 75 – 100-feet from the others.
Then, disaster struck.
Billy, 15-year old son of Spencecliff restaurants partner Clifton Weaver, was on an air mattress and missed catching a wave. Then, the rest of the boys noticed he was clinging to the mat, apparently in difficulty.
They heard a cry for help.
Seeing blood in the water, they swam over and tried to rescue Billy – they saw he had lost a leg.
Then, one of the boys cried out ‘Shark,’ seeing it surface 30-feet away.
Fearing their small boat would swamp in the surf, they rowed to shore to get help.
About an hour-and-a-half after the attack, the Fire rescue squad was on the scene. Other boats joined in the search. Finally a helicopter crew from the Marine Base spotted the body on the reef.
A local resident dove down and recovered the body. Efforts to revive him failed; Billy died from loss of blood, drowning, shock or a combination of the three.
The shark was estimated to be over 15-feet long; they believe it was a tiger shark. It was seen still cruising in the area.
The next day, the Territory and local residents set out to capture the shark. Bounties were offered. Lines of hooks were set in the water where the attack occurred. Overhead pilots spotted two schools of sharks in nearby Kailua Bay.
Over the next couple of days, more hooks were set and three tiger sharks and two sand sharks were caught.
In response to the fatal attack, the Billy Weaver Shark Research and Control Program was initiated. Starting April 1, 1959, 595-sharks were caught off Oʻahu during the remainder of the year; 71 were tiger sharks.
Kenny Young, my father, was the fund drive chairman for the Billy Weaver Shark Control Fund (Hawaiʻi’s first shark control program.) They accepted donations, and to raise additional money teeth from the hunted sharks were put on chains and sold as necklaces.
In the old days, folks used to catch and kill sharks. The accepted attitude was, “the only good shark is a dead shark.”
In an attempt to relieve public fears and to reduce the risk of shark attack, the state government of Hawaiʻi spent over $300,000 on shark control programs between 1959 and 1976. Six control programs of various intensity resulted in the killing of 4,668-sharks.
Subsequent evaluation of the 1959-1976 efforts noted, “Shark control programs do not appear to have had measurable effects on the rate of shark attacks in Hawaiian waters. Implementation of large-scale control programs in the future in Hawaiʻi may not be appropriate.” (Wetherbee, 1994)
At the turn of the century, my grandfather and his brothers (Young Brothers) used to have various jobs in Honolulu Harbor; one was taking paying customers out to harpoon sharks off-shore. My great-uncle, William, wrote books about his adventures shark hunting.
I remember Kohala shark “hunts” on the Big Island where a donated steer carcass was tied between points in a cove and “hunters,” on surrounding cliffs using high-powered rifles, shot at sharks feeding off the carcass.
Times have changed.
We have learned that tiger sharks (the ones most implicated in attacks on humans) don’t simply dwell in small coastal territories, but are instead extremely wide-ranging.
They are opportunistic predators and typically move on soon after arriving in an area, because the element of surprise is quickly lost and potential prey become wary and difficult to catch.
We know more now and recognize that sharks are an important part of the marine ecosystem. Sharks are often the “apex” or top of the food chain predators in their ecosystems because they have few natural predators.
As top predators, sharks help to manage healthy ocean ecosystems. Sharks feed on the animals below them in the food chain, helping to regulate and maintain the balance of marine ecosystems; limiting the populations of their prey, in turn affects the prey species of those animals, and so on.
To some, sharks are ʻaumakua (ancestral spirits that take possession of living creatures) that make appearances to express parental concern for the living, bringing warnings of impending danger, comfort in times of stress or sorrow or in other ways being helpful. (Kane)
Sad and Tragic, yes – we continue to have shark attacks. However, many believe it is typically mistaken identity – the sharks mistake surfers and floaters as turtles or seals. (Remember, we are visitors to their realm in the ocean.)
I still vividly recall Halloween morning, 2003, when DLNR’s shark expert came to my office to brief me on the shark attack on Bethany Hamilton on Kaua‘i. It was a somber day at DLNR. Unlike the old days, there was no “hunt” called for. Other incidents and attacks continue to occur.
“The number of shark attacks has nothing to do with how many sharks are in the water and everything to do with how many people are in the water,” said Kim Holland, University of Hawaiʻi shark researcher and Shark Task Force member. (Honolulu Advertiser, following the Hamilton attack)
John Naughton, a National Marine Fisheries Service biologist, said previous efforts to remove large predatory sharks saw the proliferation of smaller ones, which harassed fishermen and their catches.
“It’s an archaic way to manage the resource. It’s like the turn of the century, when they shot wolves. It doesn’t make sense anymore.” (Honolulu Advertiser, November, 2003) (Lots of information here is from Tester and Wetherbee.)