Today’s ‘Timeline Tuesday’ takes us through the 1940s – bombing of Pearl Harbor, Honolulu Marathon starts and Tripler Hospital is dedicated. We look at what was happening in Hawai‘i during this time period and what else was happening around the rest of the world.
Three years after the arrival American Protestant missionaries of the Pioneer Company in 1820, Asa Thurston, Artemis Bishop, Joseph Goodrich and William Ellis toured the island of Hawaii to identify appropriate Mission Stations there. The reported on six locations, with the priority given to Kailua in the Kona District and Waiakea in the Hilo District. At Waiakea, the missionaries erected two houses and a church within two months after their arrival. The needs of the congregation increased. A larger building was required as well as one that could weather the climate for a longer period of time.
The first churches for the Waiakea Mission Station were of Hawaiian thatch construction and were replaced, as they deteriorated. Haili, the name of the church, was derived from the forest, Haili Kulamanu (Paradise of the Birds) from which most of the ‘ōhi‘a wood was cut, located 6 to 8 miles southwest of the church. The Hawaiians hewed the wood in the forest, then hauled it to the mission with drag ropes. “The Haili Church Choir is one of the oldest and most widely acclaimed Hawaiian church choirs. Since the beginning of the 1900s, it has been the ‘training school’ for some of Hawai‘i’s foremost names in traditional Hawaiian music, both sacred and secular.
Today’s ‘Timeline Tuesday’ takes us through the 1930s – sugar production peaks, Pan-Am Clipper service begins, Hickam Airfield is constructed, ‘Aloha Shirt’ is trademarked and Doris Duke builds Shangri La. We look at what was happening in Hawai‘i during this time period and what else was happening around the rest of the world.
“John D. Paris came to Hawaii in 1841 as a missionary. He was not originally supposed to come to Hawai‘i. He was on his way to the Oregon territory. But the boat they were on brought some of the missionaries who were to join the mission here in Hawai‘i. They were going to drop them off, then proceed on to Oregon. When he arrived here in the mission, they said the field in South Kona had deteriorated and they had nobody really there. So, they prevailed upon him to take the assignment in South Kona, which he did. He was very active here. He built nine churches throughout Kona, mostly in South Kona, the first of which is the old church Kahikolu above Napo‘opo‘o”.
Another Paris church was at Miloli‘i. Paris built the Hau‘oli Kamana‘o Church. “Thursday, April 2d (1868,) at a few minutes past four, pm, the big earthquake occurred, which caused the ground around Kilauea to rock like a ship at sea.” A tsunami struck the coast from Hilo to South Cape, being most destructive at Keauhou, Puna and Honuʻapo. The Hauʻoli Kamana’o Church was pushed about 300 yards inland by the rushing sea, with little or no damage. The original location of the church is now underwater. Villagers later moved the church to its present-day site using palm trunks to roll it into place.
June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to Austria-Hungary’s throne, and his wife, Sophie, were assassinated. A month later, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. Within days, other countries got into the fray, including, Germany, Russia, France and United Kingdom; US President Woodrow Wilson announced the US would remain neutral. After attempts to broker peace, then sinking of the American cargo ship Housatonic, Wilson broke off diplomatic relations with Germany. With German submarine warfare continuing unabated, the final straw came on April 1, 1917, when the armed merchant ship Aztec was sunk off the northwest coast of France.
The attack on the Aztec led to America’s intervention into World War I. “There are five Hawaiian boys thought to have been killed along with 16 Americans when the American steamer the Aztec was sunk.” “An incident of unusual interest took place just prior to the reception. Colonel ʻIaukea had told Lili‘uokalani of the sinking of the Aztec, resulting in the death of five Hawaiian sailors, and asked her if on that account she would like to raise the American flag over her home. … She replied, most emphatically: ‘Yes.’”