Today’s ‘Timeline Tuesday’ takes us through the 1940s – bombing of Pearl Harbor, Honolulu Marathon starts and Tripler Hospital is dedicated. We look at what was happening in Hawai‘i during this time period and what else was happening around the rest of the world.
During Kamehameha’s conquest of the Islands, Kalama‘ula, on Molokai, was where Kalola became ill and they could not carry out their original intention of going to Oʻahu to join Kahekili. Kamehameha followed Kalola to Molokai and asked Kalola for Keōpūolani (Kalola’s granddaughter) to be his queen. It was also here that Kamehameha V planted 1,000 coconut trees; it was his favorite area for retreats.
Some suggest the area was named for a stone … and a song was written about the beauty of the area. The US Congress passed the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act to provide lands for Hawaiians; in 1922, Kalamaʻula became the first Hawaiian homestead subdivision in the islands.
“The first thing you will hear is drums in the distance, then you will smell a foul and musky odor, and you will hear a conch shell being blown, for fair warning to get out of the way, and you will see torches getting brighter and brighter as they get closer. Your best chance is to have an ancestor that recognizes you, they will call out,’Na‘u!’ which means mine.”
“But if you are in the night marchers’ bloodline no one in the procession can harm you. No matter what you build in their path they go straight through it. The night marchers are the vanguard for a sacred chief or chiefess who unusually have a high station in life.” (Kapanui)
Three years after the arrival American Protestant missionaries of the Pioneer Company in 1820, Asa Thurston, Artemis Bishop, Joseph Goodrich and William Ellis toured the island of Hawaii to identify appropriate Mission Stations there. The reported on six locations, with the priority given to Kailua in the Kona District and Waiakea in the Hilo District. At Waiakea, the missionaries erected two houses and a church within two months after their arrival. The needs of the congregation increased. A larger building was required as well as one that could weather the climate for a longer period of time.
The first churches for the Waiakea Mission Station were of Hawaiian thatch construction and were replaced, as they deteriorated. Haili, the name of the church, was derived from the forest, Haili Kulamanu (Paradise of the Birds) from which most of the ‘ōhi‘a wood was cut, located 6 to 8 miles southwest of the church. The Hawaiians hewed the wood in the forest, then hauled it to the mission with drag ropes. “The Haili Church Choir is one of the oldest and most widely acclaimed Hawaiian church choirs. Since the beginning of the 1900s, it has been the ‘training school’ for some of Hawai‘i’s foremost names in traditional Hawaiian music, both sacred and secular.
Owen Porter Churchill (March 8, 1896 – November 22, 1985), the son of a successful gold prospector who founded a real-estate and investment company in Los Angeles, had decided to take up flying as a hobby after leaving the Army at the end of World War I. But on his return to Los Angeles, his mother presented him with a boat in exchange for his promise never to fly while she was alive.
Churchill was the first person to win an Olympic yachting gold medal for the US. He and Duke Kahanamoku were US Olympic teammates on the 1932 Los Angeles squad. In 1939, Churchill went to Tahiti, where he observed the natives swimming with braided banana leaves attached to their feet. Mr. Churchill decided to make his own design of swim fins out of vulcanized rubber. The rest is history.
The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Mission (ABCFM) “decided to establish a school in this country to train the natives of non-European races to become missionaries to their own peoples.” A notable student there was ‘Ōpūkaha‘ia. Another student, referenced as Mak-oo-wi-he-na from Owhyee (the Island of Hawai‘i), was referred to as David Brainerd (named for the famous early missionary to the Native American Indians, David Brainerd).
“He has been studious, and diligent in duty, his deportment amiable, and his life such as becomes the followers of Christ. He felt much for his countrymen, and expressed desires that he might communicate the gospel to them. … But infinite Wisdom has not thus ordained. In the course of last Winter, he was arrested by disease which proved to be the consumption (tuberculosis).” Mak-oo-wi-he-na – David Brainard – died April 6, 1825.
The battle was the last stand of Kalanikūpule and 9,000-warriors of O‘ahu against Kamehameha and his invading army of 12,000-warriors from Hawai‘i. Kamehameha’s fleet landed at Waikiki where it covered the beaches from Waiʻalae to Waikiki. Kalanikūpule and his chiefs were stationed at strategic points in Nuʻuanu at Kanoneakapueo, Kahapaʻakai, Luakaha, Kawananakoa, Kaukahoku, Kapaʻeli, Kaumuʻohena, and Puʻiwa (where the fighting began.)
Kamehameha’s cannon’s rained fire down on Kalanikūpule’s forces, which disorganized under the assault. From that point on, it was a running fight, a desperate rear-guard action as Oʻahu’s defenders were herded up Nuʻuanu Valley. The name of the Battle of Nuʻuanu is also referred to as Kaleleakeʻanae, which means “the leaping of the mullet fish.” With their backs to the sheer cliff of the Nuʻuanu Pali, many chose to fall to their deaths than submit to Kamehameha.