March 24, 1820 – no entry. (Thaddeus Journal)
The ahupuaʻa of Honuaʻula is primarily on Maui, but it also includes the entire island of Kahoʻolawe. Located in the “rain shadow” of Maui’s Haleakalā, a “cloud bridge” connects Kahoʻolawe to the slopes of Haleakalā. Nineteenth century forestry reports mentioned a “dense forest” at the top of Kahoʻolawe.
On Maui, the upper areas were in Sandalwood and Koa forests. Prior to European contact, early Hawaiians farmed sweet potatoes, dry land taro and harvested wood, birds and pigs from these forested areas.
The areas below the west and south slopes of Haleakalā (Kula, Honua‘ula, Kahikinui and Kaupo) in old Hawaiian times were typically planted in sweet potato. The leeward flanks of Haleakalā were not as favorable for dry or upland taro. However, some upland taro was grown, up to an altitude of 3,000 feet.
Modern agriculture began on the slopes of Haleakalā in 1845 when Linton L. Torbert, an active member of the Royal Hawaiian Agricultural Society, farmed potatoes and corn, primarily to supply island merchant ships and California’s ’gold rush’ era. He later planted sugar. (The 2,300-acres had first been leased from King Kamehameha III in 1841.)
On January 23, 1856, “Kapena Ki” (Captain James Makee) purchased at auction Torbert’s plantation. He sold his Nuʻuanu residence. (He was active in Oʻahu business and, later, was the Kapiʻolani Park Association’s first president (they even named the large island in the Park’s waterways after him.))
But with the purchase, Makee moved to Maui and raised his family on what he called ‘Rose Ranch’ after his wife Catherine’s favorite flower.
For three decades (1856-1886), the former whaling captain farmed sugar, cattle and other crops. This early entrepreneur even planted cotton to take advantage of the Union blockade of southern ports during the Civil War.
Makee was one of the first to import, on a large scale, purebred stock. He also went in for dairying and his “sweet butter” found a fine market. In 1858 he began the rehabilitation of Torbert’s cane and the crop of 1861 was marketed in Honolulu.
He solved the area’s major problem – water. “Makee has built a wooden house and deep reservoir on the side of the house. The troubles of the men and women are now ended by this work, they are now truly well supplied with water. This land, in ancient times, was a barren open place, a rocky, scorched land, where water could not be gotten.”
“The water of this land in times before, was from the stumps of the banana trees (pūmaiʻa), and from the leaves of the kākonakona grass; but now there is water where moss can grow. The problem is resolved.” Nupepa Kuokoa, Iulai 7, 1866, [Maly, translator])
“Makee’s Plantation or Rose Ranch, as it is more generally termed by the proprietor and his friends, is situated on the south eastern part of the Island of Maui, in the district of Honuaula. … The estate contains about 6,500 acres, 1,200 of which are capable of producing cane.” (Pacific Commercial Advertiser, September 19, 1861 [Maly])
The estate grew to be famous for its beauty, hospitality, and agricultural productivity. Catherine Makee’s gardens were the pride of the household with their profusion of roses, flowers, rare plants and shrubs. Visitors today can still admire Catherine’s circular garden beds with their flowering bounty, tended year-round.
“For one arriving by the steamer and dumped on the beach or the rocks at the landing, it is a difficult task to comprehend that above the barren waste he looks upon, there is a beautiful and busy scene…awaiting him.”
“Not until he surmounts the last hill and the panorama of cultivated fields, busy works, and easy dwelling, lying before him, does he realize it; and not until he has viewed it from Prospect Hill [Pu‘u Ka‘eo], can he fully appreciate the value of the picture…” (Pacific Commercial Advertiser, September 19, 1861 [Maly])
“The nature of this land is like that of a rose garden filled with blossoms. The beautiful home of J. Makee, Esq., has no equal. … The things grown there are like nothing else seen, there are beautiful flowers, and trees of all kinds.”
“The road passes through the gardens, and to the large reservoir within the arboretum, it looks like a pond. When he finished showing us around the gardens, he took us to meet his lady (his wife), the one about whom visitors say, ‘She is the queen of the rose garden.’” (Kuokoa, November 14th, 1868 [Maly])
Rose Ranch was also famous over the years for its hospitality. Newspaper accounts from that time period describe unforgettable parties at which guests danced until the wee hours, lauding the “generous hospitality of the worthy host and hostess” [Pacific Commercial Advertiser, July 14, 1866].
In 1874, King Kalākaua brought Queen Kapiʻolani to the ranch, and was so enthralled that he became a frequent visitor.
“The main entrance to the grounds surrounding the mansion, was surmounted with an illumination bearing the words – “Welcome to the King,” in red letters, bordered with sprays of pine-leaves. …”
“A neat but roomy cottage was set apart for the use of their Majesties, and here the party remained in the enjoyment of the liveral hospitality of Capt. Makee. In the interim, a large feast in the native style was spread under the shade of the noble trees near the mansion”. (Pacific Commercial Advertiser, April 1874)
From Torbert, then the decades of ownership by Makee, then Dowsett, Raymond and Baldwin, in 1963, the property was acquired by the Erdman family.
The property is now known as ʻUlupalakua Ranch and it remains a cattle ranch with 5,000-head of cattle, as well as a winery, a country store and grill, and horseback riding and clay shooting.
Today, ʻUlupalakua Ranch operates approximately 18,000 acres, 16,000 acres of fee simple land and 2,000 acres leased from the State of Hawaiʻi and private individuals.
In 2009, two-thirds of ʻUlupalakua Ranch was placed under a conservation easement assuring that over 11,000-acres will forever remain as agricultural lands. The land extends from coastline property a mile south of Makena to the 6,000-foot elevation, up to the boundary of Polipoli State Park.
The easement allows flexibility to pursue a variety of agricultural options, such as growing lumber, exotic vegetables and fruits and pursuing more renewable energy sources. Maui’s Winery is on the property, too.
March 23, 1820 – Adopted the rules proposed last evening. (Thaddeus Journal)
March 23,1820. The following by-laws having been under consideration for some time, were adopted this evening:
That the Property furnished by the Christian public, either in money or other articles of any kind, for the purposes of the Mission shall be at the disposal of the members jointly and subject to their vote.
The property acquired by the members jointly or by individuals of the body either by grant, barter, or earnings shall also be subject to the disposal of the members Jointly.
The property thus furnished or acquired, either divided or undivided, shall be devoted to the general purposes of the mission, according to the tenor of our Instructions from the A. B. Com. F. M. and according to our own regulations, not incompatible with those instructions.
No member of this mission shall be entitled to use or allowed to appropriate such property divided or undivided, in bying [sic], selling, giving, or consuming, etc. in any manner incompatible with our general Instructions, or contrary to the voice of a majority of the members.
Should any member withdraw from the service of the AmerBoard, or abandon the mission, or without material consent separate himself from the community, or for heresy or misdemeanor be cut off from this church, he shall be considered, of course, as forfeiting all right to the patronage of the Board, and to the property of this community; – and that the holy cause may not suffer or be embarrassed by loss of property in such cases, if he shall have received a dividend of the property furnished by the Christian public, or acquired while under the patronage of the Board, he shall be bound to restore that dividend to the common stock, to be again at the disposal of the community.
Should any member of this Mission persist in violating the regulations of the Prudential Committee, or the rules adopted by this body, such violation shall be considered as uncharitable, insubordination to rightful direction, and sufficient ground for Christian Discipline.
Should it be thought advisable by this body that one or more of the members should be separate from the rest, in order more happily or effectually to secure the benevolent object of our mission, such person, or persons, whether separated at their own request, by the consent of the mission, or by nomination or ballot, shall be subject to the same general rules, as to support and labor, and the application of property and talents, and receive his proper dividend from the common stock.
No member shall be allowed to make a bargain, to bind his brethern, without their consent; but a Com. may be appointed, with discretionary powers to buy and sell for the community. (Minutes of the Prudential Meetings of the Mission Family)
An often repeated (and unfounded/incorrect) statement is, “The missionaries came to do good, and they did very well.” (Suggesting the missionaries personally profited from their services in the Islands.)
A simple review of the facts show that the missionaries were forbidden to, and didn’t “engage in any business or transaction whatever for the sake of private gain,” and they did not, and could not, own property individually.
To supply the mission members, a Common Stock system was initiated, a community-based economic system designed to enable the missionaries to accomplish their goals without having to worry about finding sustenance and shelter. It was a socialistic, rather than capitalistic, economic structure.
The missionaries were constantly reminded of Matthew Chapter 6, verse 24: “No one can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and mammon (money.)” (Woods)
So missionaries could devote their entire energies to developing a written language for the Hawaiian people, translating the Bible into Hawaiian and teaching native men, women and children to read it, the ABCFM supplied all the Hawaiian mission’s domestic needs through a Common Stock system administered by appointed secular agents for the mission.
The Minutes of a meeting of the Pioneer Company on their way aboard the Thaddeus note, “That the property furnished by the Christian public, either in money or other articles of any kind, for the purposes of the Mission shall be at the disposal of the members jointly and subject to their vote.”
“The property acquired by the members jointly or by individuals of the body either by grant, barter, or earnings shall also be subject to the disposal of the members jointly.”
“The property thus furnished or acquired, either divided or undivided, shall be devoted to the general purposes of the mission, according to the tenor of our Instructions from the A. B. Com. F. M. and according to our own regulations, not incompatible with those instructions.”
“No member of this mission shall be entitled to use or allowed to appropriate such property divided or undivided, in bying [sic], selling, giving, or consuming, etc. in any manner incompatible with our general Instructions, or contrary to the voice of a majority of the members.” (Minutes of the Prudential Meeting of the Mission Family, November 16, 1819)
Mission family members were allowed to keep personal gifts from family and friends as private property, but those gifts were subtracted from what they would otherwise be entitled to receive from the Depository. (Woods)
In essence, except for the gifts of individuals to individuals, virtually no private property was actually held by the individual missionaries.
The Mission’s secular agent, Levi Chamberlain, kept track of everything mission families received from the Depository, gifts from mainland friends or family members, and any presents from Native Hawaiians. Everything was counted against the equal distribution of goods.
By 1832 the Hawaiian missionaries were already discussing a move from the common stock system to fixed salaries. Realizing the increased expense the Board would incur from such a measure, the missionaries resolved that each family should estimate not only their current expenses but what their expenses were “likely to be in (the) future.”
In 1842, the ABCFM aided the missionaries by transitioning to a salary system. The Board allotted each couple $450 per year and granted children under 10 an additional $30 and children over 10, $70 annually.
The Board abolished the common stock system but retained the depository at which missionaries could now purchase goods. Missionary parents could now give their children a New England education in the islands and save their personal incomes for their children’s futures.
In 1863, the ABCFM withdrew financial support for the mission and the Missionary Period ended.
March 22, 1820 – Proposed some important measures of economical polity for the regulation of our domestic concerns. Some objection being offered by one of the brethren, against one of the principles established by the Board with respect to common-stock, the passing of the Byelaws was postponed till tomorrow evening. (Thaddeus Journal)
March 22nd. We are no longer languishing under a vertical sun, wishing for the favorable winds of heaven. Saturday last, when about the 5 deg. of lat. we were brought into the trade winds which at once took us on in one uniform rapid course. We had then 2000 miles remaining of our journey, but counted it almost the last stage. This morning a log of wood passed the vessel, upon which the Capt. cried, ‘from Owhyhee’. Something less than a week we hope will land us there. 0, am I so near that heathen land J I cannot say, what I have been permitted to say through all these pages, my health is good. But I would call upon my heart for gratitude for what I have enjoyed. It was uninterrupted for four months. I think not one day after commencing systematic study that I was interrupted by ill health, till within 2 deg. of the Equator, two weeks ago last Saturday. The day before, I had recited my last lesson in logic, through which I had been, very laboriously, and that day came to the last theorem in the first book of Euclid, and came almost as near what I desired to do in some other things. So you will see how I have been favored. Do not think study has hurt me, I am not seriously unwell, and hope to be allowed, before sending this, to speak of comfortable feelings, if no more. With little strength, and no appetite, I feel the scarcity of our board after a five months voyage. Nothing fresh—not one kind of vegetable —no bread, no butter, no milk. The sea biscuit I cannot now taste. But very many are our comforts. I think I feel them, I would consider myself bound by them to cheerful, active obedience. (Sybil Bingham)
Thursday. 22d. Lat. 12° Long. 137 West. Owhyhee is now the nearest land-much talk about preparations for landing on the shores of the heathen. May the Lord prepare us for whatever awaits us in his providence. and O! that the Heart of the King may be prepared to receive the law of Christ. (Lucia Ruggles Holman)